Development in the field of Genomics was spurred by two innovations in the recent history of modern biotechnology: firstly, the invention of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 1983 and secondly, the development and optimization of DNA sequencing in the 1990's. These led to the complete decoding of the human genome in 2001. Most importantly, the information garnered from high-throughput sequencing and other information-rich genomic applications provided the raw data for the exploding field of bioinformatics, where computer science and biology join forces to explore the unchartered realms of biotech innovation. The impact of Genomics on the fields of life sciences and biotechnology is manifold. It has been shown that Genomics can:
Accelerate the identification of novel drug targets in genome-wide association studies (drug target discovery and validation);
Facilitate the identification of drug-risk profiles in early preclinical development by way of creating molecular go/no-go decision gates (Toxicogenomics);
Enhance the stratification of patients enrolled in late-stage drug development, therefore reducing the costs of clinical trials (Pharmacogenomics);
Stimulate the development of novel multivariate signature assays, thereby paving the way for improved Molecular Diagnostics tests and Personalized Medicine;
Support the identification of quantitative traits underlying the more efficient molecular development of higher-yield crops (Molecular Crop Breeding).
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